Saratoga Surrender Site

1777: Artillery at Saratoga

by Brian Mumford, Friends of Saratoga Battlefield President

1777: British Artillery at Saratoga

On October 17, 1777, British General John Burgoyne surrendered his Army at Saratoga (present-day Schuylerville), New York, to American General Horatio Gates at the location of the recently dedicated Saratoga Surrender Site. Burgoyne surrendered his Army and their "arms" which included their artillery.  

Earlier in June 1777 when Burgoyne had set off from Canada on his Saratoga Campaign, his Army included a massive artillery train of 138 guns to be manhandled along forest trails. However, after taking Ticonderoga, many heavy siege pieces were sent back to Canada. Burgoyne proceeded with 48 cannons of all types on his advance toward Albany. Four of these cannons were captured during the American victory at the August 16 Battle of Bennington.

During the September and October Battles of Saratoga, Burgoyne lost ten more of his remaining pieces of artillery. At that point, Burgoyne saved what he could and began a retreat back to Canada. He was only able to make it seven miles north of where the Battles had been fought before being surrounded and forced to come to terms. 

On October 17, 1777, Burgoyne’s Army, along with its remaining artillery of approximately 30 pieces, was surrendered to Gates.  Pursuant to Article 1 of the Articles of Convention, “The troops march[ed] out of their camp with the artillery of the entrenchments, to the verge of the [Hudson] river where the old fort stood, where the arms and artillery [were] left.”  Half of the surrendered artillery consisted of British 6-pounder field cannons. This boon constituted the greatest assortment of field artillery captured during the War by the Americans until the British surrender of 244 artillery pieces at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781. 

Fig.1 British 6-pounder cannon on flask trail carriage     

After the Surrender

The surrendered artillery guns did not remain at Saratoga after the Surrender, but rather were dispatched to support General Washington in his campaign in New Jersey. For years after Yorktown, the location of the Saratoga cannons was uncertain. However, through years of intense research and investigation under the leadership of Saratoga NHP Curator Christine Valosin, in 2013 one of the surrendered British 6-pounder cannons was located in a museum in Alabama and was returned to Saratoga where it remains on display in the Visitor Center. (photo below)  

Fig. 2 Original Surrendered British Cannon at SNHP Visitor Center

Friends of Saratoga Battlefield
Bringing the Cannons Back

During the Bicentennial in the 1970’s the Park commissioned the casting of replicas of the surrendered British cannon barrels. More recently, as part of the dedication of the Saratoga Surrender Site (“Site”) on October 17, 2019, the anniversary of the Surrender, Friends of Saratoga Battlefield, (“FOSB”) with the support of FOSB Members and community donors, commissioned TR Ordnance Co., a Tennessee carriage-maker, to produce field carriages for two of the replica British barrels. 

 

FOSB officers and Park Rangers met with TR Ordnance Co., a Tennessee carriage-maker, staff who traveled to Saratoga to view the Surrender Site and to examine the Park’s inventory of replica British canon barrels (also referred to as “chase” or “tube”). Two 6-pounder barrels were selected and sent to Tennessee for the carriage production project.  In June 2020 the 6-pounders on new field carriages were brought back to Saratoga to be emplaced for public viewing on the field of the Saratoga Surrender Site. 

Fig. 3 Park inventory of cannon tubes, with Ranger Jason Huart guiding the selection of tubes for the Site project.

Fig. 4:  R to L: Brian Mumford, FOSB Pres; Bob Stokes, FOSB VP; Steve Cameron, TR Ordnance Co with 6-pounder barrels being transported to Tennessee.

Saratoga Artillery and
6-Pounder Cannon

British Artillery
By the 18th century, artillerymen were considered elite troops. In an age of widespread illiteracy, soldiers who could do the geometric calculations necessary to place a cannonball on target were valued. Burgoyne’s artillery were members of the Royal Artillery which held a special position in the British military and were treated differently from the infantry and cavalry. Its officers were graduates of the Royal Military Academy and generally were promoted based upon merit rather than through the customary commission purchasing systems. Enlisted men were selected for their potential ability and were meticulously trained in the handling of cannons and ammunition. 

The Royal Artillery training included areas of science and engineering which were involved in the complexities of calculating velocity, distances, and trajectory. In addition, there was training in the critically important methods of transporting, loading and firing a cannon. 

American Artillery
Since many of the officers and personnel in the American service had previously served in, or been trained by, the British Regular Army, much information concerning the British artillery applies to the American service. However, one significant difference is America’s lack of artillery early in the War. For years the Colonies had produced iron, however, the British had prohibited their manufacturing any artillery. Thus at the outbreak of hostilities, the Americans had on hand only a small supply of old cannons formerly used by militia companies. During the War the patriots acquired artillery from three sources: captured from the British (e.g. Fort Ticonderoga and Battle of Bennington), foreign countries (mainly France), and over time newly organized colonial ironworks.

The Northern Army
Early in the hostilities the Northern Army had no field artillery, since the few cannons they possessed had been transported south to support General Washington. Prior to the Alliance Treaty of 1778, France was secretly providing America with military supplies, including artillery.  In April 1777, in support of the Patriots’ efforts, France shipped cannon barrels—without carriages—to Portsmouth. Ten of the French barrels, including 4-pounders, were allocated to General Schuyler’s Northern Army where the carriages were constructed. There are stories that General Schuyler converted some of his farm wagons to serve as carriages for these cannon tubes. 

These French cannons accounted for half of the American artillery at the outset at Saratoga. France’s importance in providing artillery to support the newly formed United States is noted by artist John Trumbull in his Surrender of General Burgoyne in which Colonel Daniel Morgan, in the white uniform, is standing next to a French 4-pounder. 

Fig. 5 Oct. 17, 1777: Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull
showing a French 4-pounder cannon. General Gates (in blue) chivalrously refuses to accept the sword of General Burgoyne (in red) offered in surrender and, with his left hand extended, invites him to the tent for a meal.   

 6-Pounder Barrels  
Revolutionary war period cannons used by all armies were the standard smooth-bore muzzle-loading weapon that had not changed its design in the previous two hundred years. It would go on to remain very much the same for another hundred years. The 6-pounder ( or “6-pdr”) was a smooth bore cannon firing round shot. Cannon barrels were referred to by the weight of the solid shot projectile which they fire (i.e. 6 pounds). 

Fig. 6 Schematic of a 6-pounder smooth bore barrel

The iron 6-prdr barrel (also known then as “chase”) had a drilled bore just larger than the 3.5-inch diameter of the six-pound shot. It was loaded through the muzzle by using a long-poll ram to push a prepared cartridge of paper or cloth which contained the gunpowder down the bore to the breech, followed by ramming the cannonball down to rest against the cartridge.  

The gun was fired by the gunner at the rear of the gun by igniting the cartridge through the vent (or “touchhole”) at the rear of the cannon which was connected to the breech. A lighted slow-match attached to a long staff (“linstock”) was placed in the vent. The long staff allowed the gunner to stand away from the cannon to avoid recoil upon discharge. 

The firing created a strong force to propel the shot out the muzzle at a very high velocity. To withstand the powder charge and minimize the chance of a devastating explosion of the breech under such force, there were “reinforce sections” of the barrel which contained thicker walls. Addition stability was provided by the thicker reinforce rings.   The cascabel and dolphin rings were used to fasten ropes when lifting the barrel on and off the carriage.  

British Replica Barrels
The replicas of the Saratoga surrendered British 6-pounder cannon barrels bear the original date of manufacture (‘Fecit 1775.) Above that is the “GR2” cipher surmounted by the Royal Crown. GR refers to Georgius Rex i.e. King George, and the interwoven “2” is a reference to George II, who was King until 1760. The tubes also bear an engraved motif representing the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by a rose, thistle, and shamrock, respectively.

Fig. 7: Six-pounder tube selected for Surrender Site carriage project, bearing British inscription

The Flask Trail Carriage

Flask Trail
During the War the flask trail carriage was the primary mounting method for field cannons. The design entailed two long side-frame boards of heavy wood (“flasks”) which ran the length of the carriage to form two rear beams (“trails”) which rested on the ground. The flasks were connected to each other by three cross-pieces, called “transoms.” The carriages were referred to as “flask trail,” “split trail,” or “double bracket trail” carriages.     


Fig. 8 Flask trail carriage

Surrender Site Flask-Trail

TR Ordnance acquired four boards to fashion flask sides for the two Surrender Site carriages. Each of the ten-foot kiln-dried oak board was 4-inches thick by 18-inches high, weighing on average 180 pounds each. To achieve the “S” shape of the flask a good portion of each board had to be cut away. After the shaping, each 180- pound board was reduced to a 77 pound flask.    

Fig. 9 AT TR Ordanance, Brian Young and John Hartman plan the shaping of the flask trail.

Fig. 10 Ten foot, 188 pound oak board on band saw table being shaped into an S-shaped flask.  The final shaping of the carriage side can be seen at Fig. 11.

Fig 11 Two flasks are sawed and planned to achieve the "S" shape of the carriage sides. The gray transom is pictured ready to join the flasks together. The ends of the trails are covered with iron forged plates (“skids”) to shield the ends of the trails from wear during firing recoil and transportation.

Transom
Three transoms joined the flasks together. The rear-most transom (“trail transom”) had a “pointing ring” and “trail handle” which were used by the cannon crew to lift the trails to aim the cannon or when moving the carriage. There also was a “pintle hole” used to connect the carriage to a “limber” which was a two-wheel cart that provided stability to the cannon carriage when being moved a distance. A perpendicular spike (‘pintle”) on the limber was fitted into the pintle hole. 

Fig. 12 Cannon hooked to limber using limber pintle and carriage pintle hole.
(Saratoga National Historical Park at Stop 5)

Fig 13  Trail transom with pintle hole, pointing ring and trail handle.

Fig. 14 Two flask sides are joined by the trail transom, which is equipped with positioning ring and pintle hole.

Trunnion-Mounting System
The cannon was mounted to the carriage solely by means of the trunnions. The mounting system involved the trunnions, flasks, trunnion plates, and capsquares. The goal was to securely attach the trunnions while allowing them to be pivoted so the barrel could be swiveled up-and-down to aim the trajectory of the shot. Trunnion plates were iron plates fastened along the top of flasks to secure the mounting during the force of discharge. Trunnion cradles were forged in the plates to accept the trunnions. Similar cradles were cut into the top of the flasks . The plate cradle was fitted into the flask cradle, into which the trunnion was mounted. The mounting was completed by a strong iron plate (“capsquare”) covering and securing the trunnion in place. When aiming the trajectory of the barrel, the up-and-down movement was adjusted by the “elevating screw” located at the rear of the barrel under the breech.  

Fig. 15 Trunnion mounting system. Trunnion plates affixed to top of the flask, with forged trunnion cradle to receive the trunnions. Capsquare secured the placement of the trunnion. Trunnion plate was forged to bend to fit the corner of the flasks to reinforce the mounting system.

Fig. 16 Six-prd flask trail cannon: Trunnions are mounted in cradles on both flasks; trunnion plates serve to reinforce the placement of the trunnion; middle transom holds the two flasks together; the elevating screw is connected between the breech and the transom to adjust the elevation of the barrel.

Fig 17 Forging two trunnion plates using the cylindrical “trunnion gauge.”  Fig. 17 thru 20 show forging of the same trunnion plate. 

Trunnion Gauge
The trunnion plates are forged using the trunnion gauge which is a machine having a cylinder which is the same circumference as the trunnion. Its function is to maintain consistent size and position of the cradle during the forging of the trunnion plates.        

Fig. 18 Forging a corner bend in the trunnion plate to fit front corner of flask; trunnion gauge is in place. 

Fig. 19 Trunnion plate with forged cradles and corner bend.

Fig. 20 Trunnion plates affixed to the top and front of flask to secure the trunnion when mounted. Trunnion gauge remains in place to assure the shape and placement integrity of the forged cradles during forging. The flasks are joined by front transom. Next to the flask is a side box which holds ammunition and equipment.  

Wheels, Streak Tires, Nails, and Paint

 Wheels, Tires and Nails
The outer rim of the carriage wheel was made of a series of hard-wood sections referred to as the “felloes” into which the spokes were embedded. An outer metal rim (“streak tire”) encircled the felloes firmly holding the wheel together. The streak tire was comprised of six forged iron curved sections rather than one single forged ring. The use of sections allowed for the repair of the tire while in the field. Blacksmith carts accompanied the artillery to the field. The forged tire sections were attached to the wheel by “streak nails.” The nails are individually hand-forged. Each 6-pdr carriage required upwards of 100 hand-forged streak nails. 

A supply of prepared cartridges and shot was transported to the field in ammunition chests (“side boxes”) secured to the cannon carriage along the side of the flasks. The boxes would hold enough munitions to put the gun into action quickly while the munition wagon (“caisson”) was being brought up to sustain fire.”  

Fig. 21 Streak nails secure six sections of iron streak tires to bind
together the fellos sections of the wooden wheel.

Fig. 22 : Blacksmithing one of the six sections of the streak tire. The modern propane forge is seen in use.

Fig. 23 Hand forging steak nails using mold to hammer nail heads.

Fig. 24 Accumulating the 200 hand-forged steak nails needed for the Surrender Site carriages.


Cannon Colors

During the War cannon carriages were generally painted colors according to national dictate. England adopted a lead gray, France used blue, and Russia an apple green. Later in the War, Gen. Washington ordered all American carriages painted a light blue in recognition of the support rendered to America by France during the War.

Accordingly, since the Surrender Site is displaying replica British cannon tubes, the cannon carriages are painted gray, the color used by the British in the War. TR carriage-makers selected the paint color of homberg gray … as in the hat.   

Fig. 25 An unpainted and a partially primed wheel.  Note six sections of iron “streak tires” securing the outer wooden rim, or the “falloes” into which the spokes are imbedded. The tires are secured by the hand-forged “streak nails.”

Fig. 26 Wheels being primed for the final coat of British gray paint. Showing “streak nails” which were hand-forged and hammered into place to affix the six iron tire sections to the wooden follows of the wheel.     

Fig. 27 Finishing touch of final coat of paint.

Flask Carriage in Field Artillery

Transporting and firing field cannons during the Revolutionary War required a trained crew, referred to as “cannon cockers.” A crew was comprised of no fewer than six men and occasionally ten or more. The “gun commander” was an officer who had overall command of the gun and crew.

Crew Transporting Carriage
The flask carriage with a high axle and large wheels was designed to manage rough terrain. To add stability the carriage was converted to a four-wheel vehicle by attaching it to a limber. Four horses were a full team, if available. The teamsters and his horses often were not part of the military but rather were hired among local civilians. They had no loyalty and once making delivery of a cannon they were quick to remove themselves and horses off the battlefield away from the action.

The gun crew walked along next to the horse-drawn limbered carriages and provided assistance to the horses on rough roads and used grunt-strength to get the carriages up steep hills and over rocky, rough wilderness terrain. On the occasions when the crew had to move the cannon and the limber up or down a steep precipice, they were trained to follow a specific series of actions which included use of the rope, pullies, and levers which were stored on the limber. Ropes and pullies converted the limber into a crane. In situations where the crew members were pursuing or retreating from the enemy, speed and efficiency was critical when performing these procedures.    

Fig 28A

Fig 28B


The cannon crew carried arms and ammunition which were to be used only to protect the artillery. Cannon ammunition followed in a separate carriage, the “caisson.” All the while, they were exposed to the high risk of enemy incoming artillery and musket firing. At the First Battle of Saratoga at Freeman’s Farm, thirty-six of the forty-eight men of a British artillery detachment were either killed or wounded during the four hour battle. 

A blacksmith and a forge accompanied the cannon, as well as extra flask carriages to replace any that were damaged. Crew members carried in their haversacks or side boxes tools to maintain the cannon. They may also have a punch and wrought iron plug to “spike” a cannon that was being abandoned in the face of an advancing enemy and in danger of being captured. The spike was driven into the vent with the punch, making the cannon impossible to fire. With good fortune in the event the cannon was recaptured the spike could be removed, but only with great difficulty. The spike and punch were kept in a locker beneath the gun and not given to the crew member serving the vent for fear these critical items would be lost if he were killed. A retreating crew could also prevent the use of a captured cannon by carrying off the linstock match preventing the cannon from being fired.

Due to the difficulty in moving a cannon during the duress of confronting an advancing enemy, abandoning a cannon was a common occurrence. Often the same artillery was repeatedly taken and later retaken. During the Battle of Bemis Heights, the control of a British cannon was exchanged five time winding up in the possession of Americans. Cannon crew were to remain with the cannon until ordered to retreat by the artillery commander. The challenge was for how long would the crew stand by their guns.

Fig. 29 The cannon crew walked along side of carriage when moving to the battlefield and would lend a hand on rough terrain. Teamsters generally were hired civilians and they did not wear military uniforms (illustration by Don Troiani)

Crew at Battlefield
Upon arrival, the teamster removed the horses—and himself—from the battlefield. All subsequent movement of the 6-pdr cannon carriage, which weighed approximately 1.200 pounds, was to be done by the cannon crew at the directions and orders of the artillery commander. To traverse the rough ground the crew pushed on the wheel spokes, pulled attached ropes, and lifted attached handles. The crew also had to move the cannon back into position after recoiling when fired. 
If a carriage was damaged, the crew would remove the barrel to a replacement carriage. The heavy barrel was lifted by a tripod hoist called a “gyn” which lifted a rope fasten to the cascabel at the rear of the barrel.

Fig. 30 Model gyn shown lifting the cannon by means of a rope attached to the cascabel

Fig. 31 Cannon crew moving the cannon into position and preparing to fire while on rough battlefield terrain. (illustration by Don Troiani)

Preparing for Next Firing
Speed and efficiency of the artillery team was of the highest importance. The speed with which a cannon crew could prepare and fire a shot was a measure of their success. Facing the advancing enemy ranks called for rapid repetitive firing. It has been reported that highly trained corps of the Royal Artillery were capable of firing their guns upwards of six times per minute. Rapidity of firing was a significant factor when the enemy was advancing toward the guns. But with speed comes increased risk of an exploding cannon. 

 Cannons did explode, showering the cannon crew with deadly meal shards. A major cause was failing to properly preparing the cannon for firing a successive shot. After each firing, the crew had to clear the barrel with a long handled “worm” which was a large iron corkscrew-like piece used to remove any hot powder debris which could explode the powder being inserted for the next firing. Also, the bore of the barrel was to be swabbed with a wet “sponge” on a long pole to extinguish hot spots and remove any spent powder. A bucket of water was ever present near the carriage. For efficiency, the worm and the sponge often were attached to opposite ends of the same pole.    

Fig. 32 After firing, the crew prepares the cannon for loading the next shot.
(illustration by Don Troiani) 

Fig. 33   Six-pdr Worm

Fig. 34 Sponge and Ram

Firing the Cannon
To load the cannon the crew, using a “ram,” would push through the muzzle and down the bore a prepared “cartridge” containing gunpowder wrapped in paper or cloth. They then inserted and rammed the six-pound shot to the cartridge. 

After the crew loaded the cannon, the cannon commander was in charge of aiming the cannon. He stood in a position to view the field, made adjustments based upon his formal training to judge the accuracy of the cannon, and then called out to the crew any needed adjustments. Effective aiming of a cannon by the cannon commander required the skill and training he had received to become proficient at estimating distances and trajectory on the battlefield. He also had to decide whether to focus on the enemy’s infantry or artillery as the most appropriate target given the circumstances of the battle.  

The cannon was fired by the “firer” who held a long- staff match (“linstock”) with a quick burning fuse on the end. When ordered by the cannon commander, the firer would put the linstock to the vent hole located at the rear of the tube which ignited the powder in the cartridge in the gun. The linstock was on a pole to distance the “firer” from the cannon’s recoil. 

Fig. 35 Firing the cannon on the rough terrain of the battlefield, using long pole linstock for firing. The crew stands ready with a pole with both a ram and sponge on the same pole, in addition to the bucket of water to swab the barrel. (illustration by Don Troiani)

Fig. 36 Six-pounder field cannon with side boxes. At Saratoga National Historical Park , Stop 6

 6-pounder Firing Strategy

The standard 6-pdr projectile was an iron sphere cannonball or “solid shot,” which did not contain an explosive. The shot weighed six pounds with a diameter of 3.5 inches. Despite the relatively small size of the shot, given its high velocity when fired, the 6-pounder cannon had significant destructive force. The effective range of a 6-pounder was 800 yards with a maximum range much greater. 

During the 18th century the advancing enemy generally was in shoulder-to-shoulder tight formation which added to the effectiveness of their musket firing. The primary function of the defending 6-pounder cannon was to fire into the tight ranks to open gaps through which the defending infantry could rush to engage in bayonet and sword fighting. 

The favored strategy was to fire the cannon in a flat trajectory aimed to hit the ground short of the targeted troops, with the shot bouncing across the battlefield and plowing into the shoulder-to-shoulder, close ranks of enemy lines inflicting serious casualties. The velocity of the solid chunk of metal easily plowed through ten men. The flat angle was dangerous to standing troops for a great distance at the end of its flight when it ricocheted and skipped across the ground haphazardly, making the enemy dodge in unpredictable directions.

When battle strategy allowed, the cannons were positioned on the intended battlefield to deliver fire to an enemy’s flank. The shot would travel along an entire line of tightly grouped troops as they advanced. A dozen or more soldiers could be felled with one solid shot. 
A shot that missed its target still could be dangerous to troops farther to the rear. Given an open terrain, such a shot might roll and bound hundreds of yards striking anyone in its path.

It has been reported that American soldiers eagerly chased after spent British cannonballs that rolled harmlessly on the battlefield. Lugging the ball to the artillery officer, the ball was immediately added to the American munitions to be shot back at the British troops. Meanwhile, the soldier was rewarded with a ration of rum for each ball he retrieved. 

Bringing the Cannons Back

When mention is made of the Battles of Saratoga, the primary focus often is with the historic significance of the British surrender. It is common to hear that the surrender was the turning point of the Revolutionary War because it won for America the foreign assistance of France, which was the last element needed for its ultimate victory over the British. 

It has been upwards of 240 years since General John Burgoyne presented his sword in surrender to General Horatio Gates to end the Battles of Saratoga. Burgoyne and his troops marched out of their camp and left their arms and artillery at a location seven miles north of the fields where the Battles had been fought.  

It became evident that the land upon which the surrender took place should become a monument to focus on and memorialize this world-altering event, America’s victory over the British on October 17, 1777. When in the 1920’s New York State purchased farms where the two battles of Saratoga had occurred to create the Saratoga Park (now the Saratoga National Historic Park), the surrender site property was not available for purchase.  

Nearly 240 years after the surrender, however, title to the location of the surrender was finally acquired by a land conservation organization. Over the past few years, with the generous support of the community, the Friends of Saratoga Battlefield has developed the Saratoga Surrender Site where a monument has been erected to honor the 15,000 American militia and troops who fought and suffered in the final battle to force this historic surrender. Featured at the site is a bronze bas relief of John Trumbull’s Surrender of General Burgoyne offering his sword to Gates in the presence of the American and British officers (see Fig 5). Emplaced near the monument are the two 6-pounder cannons similar to those laid down by the British at the surrender, an event which changed the world. 



Additional Photos

Works Consulted

Most Notable Works:

Schnitzer, Eric, and Don Troiani. Don Troiani’s Campaign to Saratoga---1777. Stackpole Books, 2019. [Author Eric Schnitzer serves as Park Ranger/Historian, Saratoga National Historical Park] 

Elting, John R. The Battles of Saratoga. Philip Freneau Press, 1977.

Caruana, Adrian. The Light 6-Pdr. Battalion Gun of 1776 (Historical Arms Series No. 16). Museum Restoration Series, 1977. [A compendium of training material developed by the Royal Regiment of Artillery.] 

Official Program: One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary. Battle of Saratoga and Surrender of Burgoyne. On the Battlefield, October 1927. 150th Anniversary Official Celebration Committee Program. Adolph S. Ochs, Chair. October 8, 1927.


Other Works:

Carola, Chris. “Cannon from 1777 Battle Back ‘Home’ in Saratoga Battlefield.” The Post Star. Nov. 16, 2013. poststar.com/news/local/cannon-from-1777-battle-back-home-in-saratoga-battlefield/article_7901d206-4efb-11e3-a590-0019bb2963f4.html

Gabriel, Michael P. The battle of Bennington: Soldiers & Civilians. History Press, 2012.

Griswold, William A. and Donald W. Linebaugh, eds. The Saratoga Campaign; Uncovering an Embattled Landscape. University Press of New England, 2016.

Irving, Washington. The Life of George Washington 1789-1889. Limited Centennial Edition. Vol. III. The Knickerbocker Press, 1889. 

Luzader, John. Decision of the Hudson: The Battles of Saratoga. Eastern National, 2002. 

Luzader, John. Saratoga: A Military History of the Decisive Campaign of the American Revolution. Savas Beatie LLC, 2008. [Forward by Eric Schnitzer, Park Ranger/Historian, Saratoga National Historical Park] 

Manucy, Albert. Artillery Through the Ages. Illustrated History of the Cannon Emphasizing Types Used in America. Madison & Adams Press, 2018.
Neilson, Charles. An Original, Compiled and Collected Account of Burgoyne’s Campaign and the Memorable Battles of Bemis’s Height Sept. 19 and Oct. 7, 1777. Hamilton Printing Company, 1844.

Reynolds, Cuylor. Albany Chronicles: A History of the City Arranged Chronologically. J. B. Lyon Company, Printers, 1906.
Sweetman, John. Saratoga 1777: Part of Lieutenant-General Sir John Burgoyne’s Expedition Against the American Colonies. Charles Knight & Co. LTD, London, 1971. 

Wright, Esmond. The Fire of Liberty. The Folio Society, London, 1983. [The title of this book is taken from President Washington’s First Inaugural Address in which he saw his new country’s destiny not only to the preservation of “the republican model of government” but also as to the “preservation of the sacred fire of liberty.”